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Full text of "Riveting aluminum."


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THE ItIV I TIM. OP 



ALUMINUM 



AND ITS ALLOYS 





iveting is a satisfactory method of joining aluminum and it- 
alloys. Kither steel or aluminum alloy rivets may be em- 
ployed. Steel rivets are stronger, but they should be used only 
when the structure is to be painted adequately. Aluminum alloy 
rivets are employed where maximum resistance to corrosion 
and weight saving are essential. 

Aluminum alloy rivets may be made from practical^ an\ of 
the wrought aluminum alloys, but the following are the allovs 
eommerciallv available in rivets: 2S (commerciallv pun- alu- 
minum), 3S, A17S, 17S and 53S. 

As the properties of 2S ami 38 an- not improved b\ heat 
treatment, rivets made from them are always driven cold as- 
received from the manufacturer. The other three alloys (AITS, 

17S and S3S) have their properties improved l>v heat treatment 
and consequently, rivets made from them should alwav- be 
heat treated* before or during the driving operation, as will be 
explained later. 

Muminum alloy rivets are furnished with various tvpes of 
heads. Button, round, mushroom, brazier and flat head rivets 
are furnished with a small fillet at the junction of the shank and 
head. The radius of this fillet is equal to about one-tenth of the 
shank diameter, with a minimum of 0.01 of an inch. 



The heat treatment <>f 53S i* r<»\ered hv patent* owned by Vluminiiru Company of Amerii . 



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of a rivet increases directly as the number of planes upon which 
shear occurs, so that in double shear a rivet is twice as strong 
as in single shear. 

Table II gives safe design values for various rivets in single 
shear. These values have been calculated on the basis of a hole 
diameter 5 per cent greater than the nominal rivet diameter, 
using safe design stresses taken from Table I. 

Safe Tensile Value of Rivets: — Ri\<ts are not well suited 
for transmitting loads in tension because a slight eccentricity 
of load exerts a prying action on the head which may result in 
early failure. This tendency is especially marked under the con- 
dition of repeated loads. Consequently, it is a generally accepted 
practice to avoid the use of any connection designed principally 



LE I— SHEAR STRENGTHS AND SAFE SHEAR DESIGN 

STRESSES FOR DRIVEN RIVETS 



w% • 


Driving 


Average Ultimate 


Recommended Safe 


Rivet 


Procedure 


Shear Strength 


Shear Design Stress,* 






Lb. per square inch 


Lb. per square in< It 


>s 


Cold, As-received 


11,000 


3,000 


ss 


Cold, As-received 


14,000 


4,000 


A17S-T 


Cold, As-received 


30,000 


8,500 


17S** 


Cold, immediately 

alter quenching 


35,000 


10.000 


53S-W 


Cold, As-received 


25,000 


7,000 


53S-T 


Cold, As-received 


28, 0<M) 


8,000 


I7S** 


Hot, 930° to 950°F. 


34,000 


0,000 


53S** 


Hot, 960° to 980°F. 


20,000 


6,000 


Steel 


Hot, 1700° to 1900°F. 


45,000 


13,000 



These values have a factor of safety of about 3.5. 

**Immediately after driving the shear strengths of these rivets are about 
75% of the values shown. On standing at ordinary temperatures they ag« 
harden to develop their full strengths, this action being completed in about 
four days. 







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ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 



9 



for transmitting loads by tension in the rivets. Tensile stresses 
in rivets cannot always be avoided because the racking of the 
framework and other secondary effects may produce appreci- 
able tensile loads. In such cases, the safe tension value of a rivet 
may he taken as one-half the safe single shear value. (See Tables 

I and II.) Always an effort should be made to keep such second- 
ary tensile stresses in rivets as low as possible. 



Safe Hearing I nine of Meets: — The bearing value de 
|>ends upon: 



1. The area in hearing. 

2. The bearing strength of the metal in 
whichever is the lower. 



the rive! or plat* 



3. The edge distance in the direction in which the joint is 
stressed. 



FABLE II— SAFE DESIGN VALUE OF ONE RIVET IN 

SINGLE SHEAR, LB. 



Factor of safe t v of about :!.5. 

Diameter of hole assumed 5 per eent ^r»-ater than diameter of rivet. 
For double nhear values, mullipU bv two. 









Cold Driven 






Hot Driven 


Size, 

inches 
















2S 


8S 


A17S-T 


ITS* 


53S-W 


53S-T 


ITS 


5SS 


Steel 


X 


100 


220 


460 


540 


380 


430 






700 


% 


370 


490 


• • * 


1,^0 


850 


980 


1,100 


7 in 


1,590 


• , 


650 


860 


• 


2,100 


l,51n 


1,730 


1,94<) 


1,300 


2,800 


% 


1,010 


1,850 




8,380 


■i.:\7ii 


2,710 


3,040 


2, SO 


4, + 00 


:: . 


l,4(i0 


1,940 




• •an 


3,410 


* • • 


1,370 


2,920 


6 20 




1,990 


2,660 


. 


a. . . 


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5,980 


8,980 


8,630 


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7,790 


5.190 


11,250 



*Dri\en immediately after quenching. 












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ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 



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Bearing tests of joints show that the first appreciable per- 
manent distortion of the hole occurs when the bearing stress is 
approximately equal to the nominal tensile strength of the ma- 
terial and that this yielding is practically independent of the 
edge distance. The safe bearing design stresses for various alu- 
minum alloys given in Table III have an adequate factor of 
safety against both hole distortion and ultimate failure. 

The safe bearing stresses for driven rivets given in Table 
IV are to be used only when the rivet is softer than the material 
through which it is driven. For instance, if 34-inch 4S-%H plates 
are joined by 3^-inch 53S-W rivets driven in H-inch diameter 
holes spaced \% inches from the edge of the plates, the safe 
bearing value is governed by the rivets and is 1840 lb. (1.05 \ 
Y<L x x /i x 14,000). If the same rivets are used in 4S-0 plates, the 
safe bearing value is governed by the plates and is only 1440 lb. 








Riveting Aluminum Alloy Tank, % inch Hot Aluminum Alloy Rivets 






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PROPORTIONS OF RIVETED JOINTS 

HE first requirement of riveted joint.-* i- that the\ l>. jtrone 
enough to transfer safely 1 1 1<* forces acting on tin- parte 

joined. This requirement is responsible onlv in a general v\a\ for 
the design ol the joint, beeause a number of joints can I" d» 
signed for any given ease, all strong enough, but varying winVK 
in size and spacing of rivet- In the following paragra | > 1 1 - . the 
faelors iuflueneiug the proportions of riveted joint- i« dig 

cussed. Such factors will be found helpful in laving out higlil) 

stressed joints, as well as those in ulueh the rivet- are tised -impK 
to fasten tWO or more part- together. 



Size of Rivet, Maximum and Minimum Limits: — II 

Luge rivet is used in thin metal, the bearing Strength USUall) 
governs and there i- an excess of shear strength. Moreover 
the pressure required to drive the large rivet freipimtlv < iu-« 
an undesirable bulging of the thin material an. mid the rivet 
head. I'or these reasons, the diameter of the rivet should rare|\ 
exceed lv\o and one-hall to three times the thickness <•! tin sheet 
<»r plate. 

< )n the other hand, if a small rive! i- u I in a thick plate 
the shear strength is the determining factor and there is an I 
Cess of bearing strength. Small hole- in thick plate usuall) mak- 

fabrication difficult. Experience indicates that the rivel diametei 
should be not less than the thickness of the thickest plate through 

w hich it 18 driv en. 



Spacing of Rivets: — The spacing of ri \ »- 1 - in an\ joint 

ordinarilv depends upon the proportion- ol the members joined. 
The minimum spacing is determined bv driving Conditions: the 

space between the rivets must be sufficient t«» permit them t«- 
be driven without interference. Three times the nominal rivel 
diameter is the recommended minimum spacing. In tension 

member-, and joints, the spacing must be such that the net 

stressed area is not too small, lii some cases this becomes the 
controlling consideration. 









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ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 15 



less than one and one-half diameters are used, the rivets gener- 
ally must be underdriven to avoid bulging the plate. 

Caulked Joints: — Riveted joints which must be pressure- 
tight may be caulked either by deforming the edges of the plates 
with a caulking tool or by using caulking strips of a softer alloy 
to seal the joint. Joints which are to be caulked in this manner 
should have edge distances about one and one-half times the 
rivet diameter or about four times the thickness of plate. The 
spacing of rivets should not exceed four times the rivet diameter 
nor about ten times the thickness of plate. The rivets ordinarilv 

1 should be stressed about 20 per cent less in bearing and shear 

than is indicated in Tables I, II, III and IV. 

In some types of riveted joints where it is not convenient 
to caulk in the way described, the joint often can be made 
pressure-tight simply by packing it with a material to act as 

l a seal. It is important that such a material be nonabsorbent, 

firm enough so it will not "bleed" through the joint, and over 
a period of time, tough enough not to crack or spall. Such 
packing materials should be noncorrosive to aluminum and 
should be applied in layers thin enough not to appreciably affect 
the strength of the joint. 



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rolrl in sizes whirh are limited l>\ the shape of head and equip- 

menl available, as shown l>\ Tables V and \ a. 



TABLE V— PRESS! RES IN TONS REQI IRED 10 l>KI\ I 
BUTTON HEAD RIVETS WITH SQUEEZE RIVKTKK 

ProHHiirrH ^iven are for complete button beads as dimension* -I on page B 

Cone -point beacli (Figure 1) can be cold driven %v t ill about one-third tl« 

(treasures given below for cold -driven button beads, (lot-driven com nt 
leadi require onl\ about one-sixth ib» | in- - jivrn low for hoi driven 

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17S 


3 


Steel 


inches 


2S 


8S 


\ 17S-T 


17S* 


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^Driven immtMliatrU alirr quenching 



TABLE \a— IvOl IV VI IM PRESSURES H>K 

I'M I M V fl< II VMMERS 



Thesf approximate equivalent pressure wrrr Jrtrrmi I bj driving teats 

.iluininiint alio) rivets using about !><> lb per ^\. in. air m isure, and m.i\ I 

used with 1 ablr \ t«> determine the oronrr si/r^ o| namnu'r-* lor rlnv 

arious n\ rts. 



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Bore and Strolu 

of llamnifr, 

inches 



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Cquiv alenl 

Pressure! 

tons 



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Bore and Stroke 

of f I a turner, 
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ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 19 



after heat treating, and more slowly thereafter. Since they are 
heat treated before shipment, they are usually fairly stable when 
received and can be stored for several months without appreci- 
able change in characteristics. If they are stored in a warm place 
or for a very long time, they may harden sufficiently to decrease 
the ease of driving. If this occurs, they may be restored by again 
heat treating, the procedure being the same as the heat treat- 
ment of ITS rivets except that the temperature should be 960° F. 
to 980° F. Shear strengths and driving pressures of freshly heat- 
treated 53S-W rivets will be lower than those given in Tables I 
and V unless the rivets are allowed to age at least one week at 
room temperature before driving. 

The third temper is 53S-T, which is simply 53S-W aged for 
about 18 hours at temperatures from 310° F. to 320° F. Because 
of their higher mechanical properties, it is somewhat harder to 
drive 53S-T rivets than 53S-W rivets and so they are not used 
as frequently even though they are stronger (Table I). In the 
smaller sizes, for which driving pressure is seldom a limiting 
factor, they are often found to be better than 53S-W. They may 
be stored indefinitely at room temperature without affecting 
their strength or driving characteristics. 

Alloy 53S rivets are driven hot in the larger sizes if the avail- 
able equipment does not permit cold driving in the W or T 
temper. The hot-driving procedure is the same as that for 17S 
rivets except that the heating temperature is from 960° F. to 
( )80° F. For hot driving, 53S rivets are ordinarily ordered not 
heat treated, but 53S-W and 53S-T rivets may also be hot driven 
with no change of method. 

Steel Rivets: — Steel rivets in aluminum alloy structures 
ordinarily are driven hot in the usual way. They are heated to 
about 1800° F. and driven with as little delay as possible so as 
to make the driving easier. 

Where a large group of hot steel rivets occur closely spaced, 
it is good practice to avoid overheating the adjacent metal. 
Generally, the only precaution necessary is to drive at random 
rather than in succession. Sometimes it may be necessary to 



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Milan head has a considerable advantage over a larger one. Tests 
have shown that the hut ton head, tin- smallest type shown on 

page 8, is larger than necessary to develop tin- strength of the 

rivet shank. Therefore, where ease of driving is import. nil and 

where a large head size is not needed for appearance or other 
reasons, undersize sets should be used for the driven heads to 

decrease the required driving pressure. 

There is often some confusion between tin- round head and 
button head shown on page 8. The round head IS the I :<r ol 
the two and in view of the foregoing discussion, preference should 

always he triven to the smaller button head. < >f course tli 
shape of the manufactured head, round or button, doe* not 
necessarily determine the shape of the driven head, but tOO oil* n 

it is found necessary to trv to match the shape of tin- manu- 
factured head in the driven head. Tin- causes con-idei II- 

difficult) if round -head rivets are used because the) requii 

about 30 per cent more pressure to drive than button head 
riv el>. 



Vfter considerable research on the factors influen* ing dri\ 
ing pressure, the cone-poinl tvpe of driven head shown in Figui 

I lias been developed tor use mi aluminum allo\ rivets, lie 

head is large enough to develop the tensile strength <>l the rivel 

>hank in a straight tensile pull, and 

vet is so small that it requires onlv 

1 

one-third the driving pressure of 

a lull button head, as indicated 



in Table \ . The cone-point head 
has the additional advantage of 
requiring less Stock, a> indicated 

in Table \l, and it is not sreath 



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affected in appearance or strength 
hv slight variations in length of 
shank. Several sizes of rivets mav 

be driven with a given cone-poinl 

rivet set as indicated in Figure I. 

The degree of upsetting lor 

cone-point head rivets is best eon- 







H < T K K I. Nominal iltni«-n«iofii 
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structures, provided they are large enough to upset the rivets 
properly. Driving tests on aluminum alloy rivets indicate that 
the various sizes of hammers will develop equivalent pressures 
as indicated in Tahle Ya when used with about 90 lb. per sq. in. 
air pressure. 

The values from Table Va may be used in conjunction with 
Table V as a guide in the selection of equipment. If it is desired 
to select a hammer for use on J^-inch 53S-W cold -driven rivets, 
Table V shows that this rivet requires 30 tons, using a squeeze 
riveter for a complete button head, or about 10 tons i}/^ of 30) 
if a cone-point head is used. Judging from the equivalent pres- 
sures given in Table Va, a hammer l^jj x 9 inches would be selected 
for button heads, and a hammer lj^jj x 4 inches would be selected 

for cone -point heads. 

The values of equivalent pressure will be found somewhat 
low when applied to hot -driven steel rivets, probably because 
steel rivets hold their heat better than aluminum alloy rivets 
<luring the driving operation. The sizes of hammers required for 
driving hot steel rivets are too well known in fabricating shops 

to require further comment. 

Aluminum alloy rivets may be headed by means of a hea\ \ 
hand hammer or sledge. This method has been found satisfactor\ 
for work which permits adequate bucking. 

Rivet sets for use on aluminum alloy rivets should have 
smooth, polished surfaces so that the metal may flow readily 
during the forming of the head. The bucking tools, especially 
those used with the larger hammers, should have plenty of mass. 
The mass should be distributed close to the rivet head, and be 
concentric with it. The cup on the bucking-up set should be 
slightlv wider and shallower than the manufactured head so that 
the initial contact will be at the end of the head directly in line 
with the shank, as shown in Figure 2. This practice will pre- 
vent the shank from being driven up into the head, and will 
greatly facilitate uniform upsetting throughout the length of the 

shank. 

For heat treating aluminum alloy rivets, a reliable tem- 
perature indicator is e-> ential in order to insure the required 




M » I I \ • M I \||M M 







ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 27 



temperature control. When rivets are to be quenched in water 
for cold driving, the heating equipment generally consists of 
a bath of sodium nitrate heated by gas, oil or electricity. The 
rivets are handled in a basket made of wire mesh or perforated 
sheet and must be quenched quickly after removal from the 
heating bath. All nitrate must be washed off the rivets. 

It is often desirable to avoid having the rivets directly in 
contact with the nitrate, and tanks for heat treating rivets are 
often equipped with steel tubes, closed at one end and immersed 
in the nitrate with the open end projecting slightly. The open 
end is fitted with a readily removable cap. The rivets are heated 
by placing them inside these protecting tubes for about one- 
half hour. At the end of the heat-treatment period the cap is 
removed, the tube quickly withdrawn from the bath, and the 
rivets immediately poured into the quench water. Electrically- 
heated air furnaces also may be used to avoid having the rivets 
in nitrate, but care should be taken in such furnaces to have the 
temperature uniform throughout. 

Aluminum alloy rivets for hot driving are commonly heated 
in a lead pot such as the one shown in Figure 3, or in an elec- 
trically-heated air furnace. Automatic control of temperature is 
highly desirable in both types of equipment. The heating equip- 
ment must be near the work so that the temperature lost in 
transfer is minimized. When heating in a lead bath, provision 
must be made to submerge the rivets in the bath; otherwise 
they will float. All adhering lead should be removed by a sharp 
blow against some solid object, before the rivet is inserted in 
the hole. 



Rivet Holes: — Rivet holes in aluminum alloys may be 
punched, drilled, or sub-punehed and reamed to size. The last 
method is preferable, especially if the reaming is done in as- 
>embly to give the holes exact coincidence. It has been found 
that bridge reamers of the spiral-fluted type are best suited 
for use in aluminum and aluminum alloys. 

The clearance which is to be allowed in the holes depends 
largely on the class of work. It is easier to drive rivets, espe- 




I I I \i < i| \ II M I \l 




• 









ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 29 



ciallv those cold driven, when the clearance is small. If a loose 
fit is used, it will be hard to hold the rivets straight, and eccentric 
heads often result. The best clearance is the smallest one which 
will allow the rivet to be inserted easily without delay. Hot 
rivets require more clearance than cold ones because it is harder 

to handle them. 

Rivet holes tend to get out of coincidence during the driving 
operation because of slippage, swelling of the metal, and warping 
caused bv heat. For this reason, the work should be assembled 
firmly by bolts before driving. The bolting should be tight to 
prevent slippage and to prevent the rivets from squeezing out 
between the parts of the joint. 

Lengths of Rivets: — The length of rivet required for form- 
ing a head depends upon the grip or total thickness of metal 
through which the rivet is driven, clearance between rivet and 
rivet hole, the alloy, and the form of head. Table VI gives the 
lengths for various grips for full button heads on 17S rivets 
driven in 17S-T plate. The values in this table are accurate 
only for the conditions stated, but they may be used to estimate 
lengths required for other conditions. Because of variations in 
rivet sets and driving conditions, the safest method to follow 
is to make several trials with the equipment to be used on the 
job before specifying the exact length of rivets. It is better to 
have the rivets slightly too long rather than too short, because 
a short rivet may allow the rivet set to strike and damage the 
plate. 



I in » I i n im n minim 



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ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 31 



AIRCRAFT RIVETING 




HE riveting of aircraft is limited to the smaller sizes of rivets 
and consequently it is nearly always done cold. The most 
commonly used rivet is 17S driven immediately after quenching. 
These rivets develop an ultimate shear strength, based on the area 
of the hole, of 35,000 lb. per sq. in. about four days after being 
driven. 

Where a shear strength higher than that of 17S is needed, 
24S rivets are sometimes used. Driven immediately after quench- 
ing from a temperature of 910° F. to 930° F., they develop with- 
in about one day an ultimate shear strength of about 44,000 
lb. per sq. in. based on the area of the hole. Since the rate of age- 
hardening of 24S rivets is more rapid than that of 17S rivets, 
it is necessary to drive them more quickly after quenching; the 
elapsed time should not exceed 20 minutes. Rivets of 24S are more 
difficult to drive than those of 17S. They are not regularly carried 
in stock and may not always be obtained as promptly as rivet- 
in the other alloys. 

Rivets of A17S-T, 53S-W or 53S-T, driven in the as-received 
condition, are being used more and more in aircraft construction 
to avoid shop heat treating, refrigeration and similar operations 
involved in the use of 17S and 24S rivets. These rivets develop 
ultimate shear strengths somewhat less than that of 17S (Table I) 
but are found to be quite satisfactory for many purposes. They 
drive as readily as 17S rivets (Table V) and can be driven much 
more easily than 24S rivets. 

When bare Alclad 17S-T or Alclad 24S-T sheet is used, 53S-W 
or 53S-T rivets are the most satisfactory because they have 
the best inherent resistance to corrosion of any of the fore- 
going rivets, and in addition, they have substantially the same 
electrolytic potential as the Alclad coating. Under severely cor- 
rosive conditions, the heads of A17S, 17S and 24S rivets tend 
to be protected electrolytically by the Alclad coating. Rivet- 
of 53S-W and 53S-T do not show this tendency and hence their 
use insures longer life to the coating in the vicinity of the rivet. 



:\2 



TIIK Kl\ ETING OK VLl MINI \! 



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Identification marking have Imtu adopted f < » r u < on tlie 

Ik .Hi- of iircr^fi ri\rii» <»( t In following ..lloya: l~ \I7S ..ml 
L s I •»• marking an 1 illu- 1 f at«*<l above. (Mo identification markfl 
.in' n< i Im .nliipii'ii (or mi t •- of lln other alloys* 

( in -i/' B I ii til in U I|] jIIon ri\f I- i i now |»r Minnlirl 

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mi larh \s\\\i utomatii riveting nun hinei 



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34 



THE RIVETING OF ALUMINUM 



— 



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TABLE VII— WEIGHT* OF BUTTON HEAD 

ALUMINUM ALLOY RIVETS 



Length 
L nder 

Head, 

inches 



I 



0.4 
0.5 
• 1.6 
0.6 

7 

0.8 

(i - 

0.9 

o.9 

1 
1 I 
1.1 

1 I 

1 

1 : 

1 4 

1 4 

1.5 

I 6 
I 6 

1 7 
I 7 

1.8 
1 9 

1 9 

2 
2.0 
2 1 






2 

■I 



2 

4 



■i 
2 
■l 
2 

2 



4 
5 
5 
6 

* 



Values given in pounds per hundred rivets 



■', 



0.4 



9 

1 
1 1 

1 2 
1 

1 4 

1 5 
1 .6 

17 

1.8 

1 9 

2 
2 

1 

-2 2 
2 

2 4 
2 5 
2 6 

2 7 

2 8 
2 9 

n 
1 

2 
8 

4 



3 

S 

s 



3 5 

:; 6 

3 ? 
3 s 
3 9 

4 (I 

4 1 

4 2 



^ 



0.6 



1.4 
16 

1.7 
1.9 
2.0 
2 1 
2 3 
2.4 
2.6 
2 7 

2 B 



4 
4 

4 

5 
5 
5 
5 5 



6 

- 
9 

1 

-2 



5 




s 
9 







4 3 2 



> 



0.9 





o 


3 


1 


3 


3 




4 


3 


5 


3 


7 


3 


8 


3 


9 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


5 



2 2 

2 4 

2 6 
•2 8 
3.0 

3 2 
3 4 
3.6 

3 8 

3 9 

4 1 



4 
4 
1 

4 

■ > 



3 
5 

7 
9 
1 



."> I 



> .) 



— 

■ > 

5 






o 



(i 

6 



-2 

4 



(i (i 

6 s 

7 

7-2 

7 I 

7 6 
/ i 
7.9 

8 ] 

8 3 



Diameter in Inches 



H 



1 4 



• • - 



3 4 

3 6 

3 9 

4 1 



4 
4 
4 
5 



4 
(i 
9 
1 



5 4 

5.6 

5 9 

6 1 
6 4 

6 6 

(i 9 

7 1 

7.3 



i 

7 
S 



6 

8 

1 



8 3 

s (i 

8.8 

9 1 

9 ; 
9 (i 
9 s 

10 I 

10 

10 c 

10.8 

11 I 



8.5 113 



5 A 



2.8 



7 
7 
7 
8 
8 
9 

9 

9 
10 
10 
11 
II 
11 
12 

12 

13 

13 

13 
14 
14 
11 
15 

15 
16 
16 

i<; 

17 

1 

18 

IS 

18 



4 8 



12 
12 

13 
13 

14 
14 
15 
15 
16 
17 
17 

is 
is 

19 
19 

40 

2! 

22 

22 

2 
23 

24 

-24 

5 

-2.7 

26 

-27 

27 



7 . 



7 6 



18 
19 

20 
21 
21 

28 

'24 

24 
-2.7 

26 
-27 
27 

28 
29 

30 
30 
31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 
36 

37 
38 



11 3 



* * 



• ■ 



* m 



i • 



X ft 



• 



27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 

35 

36 

37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 

43 
44 

4.7 
46 

47 
48 

19 



51 



IX 



16 1 



3 

40 

41 

42 
44 

4.3 

40 
47 
49 
70 
51 
52 
54 
55 

56 
58 
.79 
60 

61 
3 

1 

65 
6« 



IV 



22.1 



53 
55 

56 

58 

61 
64 

■ - 

70 

72 
73 

7<i 
78 

81 

82 

si 



•Weights given are for 1"-. 

For 1$ multiply b 5 0.971— For 3S multiply 1m 0.983 For A17S multiply by 
0.989— For - multiply 1m 0.965. 






^ right * of ri\ i t head* onl\ . 



ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA 



SALES OFFICES 



• 



\LB \ W V ^ 90 State Street 

\ TLANTA. GA 1818 Rhodes-Haverty Building 

BOSTON, MASS 20 Pro\ idence Street, Park Square 

BUFFALO, N. Y 1880 Elm wood Avenue 

I II \HLOTTE. \. C 010 Johnston Building 

- HICAOO, I LL 520 N. Michigan Avenue 

( INCINNATI, OHIO Times Star Building 

( LIAKLWD, OHIO 2210 Harvard Avenue 

DALLAS, TEXAS 1601 Men Building 

DENVER, COLO 684 I . S. National Bank Building 

DETROIT, MICH 3311 Dunn Road 

FAIRFIELD, CONN Boston Post Road 

HARTFORD, CONN.. . Capitol Building, 410 Asylum Street 

1M)1 VNAPOLIS, IND loos Merchants Bank Building 

K \ VS \S CITY, MO 2306 Power & Light Building 

L< )S ANGELES, CALIF 1031 S. Broadway 

M I L\\ AUKEE, WIS 1 N. Water Street 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN 134.5 Northwestern Bank Building 

NEW ORLEANS, LA 1512 American Bank Building 

NEW YORK, V Y 230 Park Avenue 

NEWARK, N. J 1111 Acadeim Building 

PHILADELPHIA, PA 2307 Fidelity -Philadelphia Trust Building 

PLTTSBl RGH, PA Gulf Building 

ST. LOUIS, MO 10OO Continental Building 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF ""'' Kialto Building 

SE\T'I LE, \\ VS11 L005 White Building 

TOLEDO, OHIO 915 Ohio Bank Building 

\\ VSHINGTON, D. C 605 Southern Building 



ALCOA 




The word M..11 and the adjacent design are registered trademarks 
applied to the product* of Aluminum Company of America, whose 
technical -tall exercises the most rigid control >>\r-r every process in 
the production or klcoa Aluminum . . . from the mining of hau\< 
or.- to iln- production of uniform and high quality aluminum and 

aluminum alloys, in even commercial form 



ALCOA 




ALCOA 




.